Water intoxication in dogs is not quite a very common incident which makes it one of the least understood illnesses that a pet could have. It is caused by water and perhaps this is why it is commonly ignored since water is quite a harmless substance. Who could think that drinking it in certain amounts can cause immediate death? As pet owners, we know that water is an essential part of a dog’s diet and we presume that dogs cannot possible drink more than they could take.
Just like humans, we tend to think that dogs also possess that innate ability to learn their limits and just stop drinking when they are already full.
This condition is also one of those which is least studied by veterinarians and perhaps this is why it is also commonly misdiagnosed. More often than not, dogs are made to undergo screenings and take medications which not only allow the condition to worsen without giving the dog the appropriate treatment. This is really one of the major mistakes that a veterinarian can make since time is a crucial factor in treating this condition. A dog can die from 3 to 4 hours after they had started ingesting large amounts of water.
What is water intoxication?
Water intoxication is a condition that is brought about by too much water ingestion or by drinking large amounts of water. It occurs not only in animals but in humans as well and there are very few studies which had been conducted about it. Some studies that have been conducted in the past showed that toxicity begins after a dog has drank water which is equal to about one-third of its weight.
Death on the other hand, occurs after about two-thirds had been ingested. Studies have also shown that dogs can die from water intoxication after about 3 to 4 hours (for small dogs) or from 7 to 8 hours for larger breeds.
In the experiments which were conducted in order to study the effects of too much water ingestion on animals, the researchers found the following physical manifestations or effects:
- Highly diluted plasma with increased volume and lower hemoglobin
- Rapid loss of large amounts of sodium and chloride in body tissues especially in the bones and blood
- Swelling of tissues particularly in the liver and the brain
- Water was found mainly on the gastrointestinal tract
- Loss of certain minerals and nutrients from the body through urine
This also led to the conclusion that water intoxication not only has to do with the excessive amount of water in the body but also to the rapid loss of chloride which causes an imbalance of electrolytes. When the body loses sufficient amount of these electrolytes, it will maintain osmotic balance by absorbing extracellular fluid.
Since this fluid already is highly diluted with water, the cells will then swell due to the excessive amount of water. This swelling can affect not only the minor organs in the body but even the brain and the central nervous system as well and this is why water intoxication can be fatal.
How can dogs catch this condition?
A pet owner can have the best intentions and unknowingly expose their dogs to water intoxication. Since this condition is life-threatening, prevention would be the way to avoid it and here are some things that you have to do if you don’t want your dog to catch it:
- Allowing your dog to swim or play in the water for long periods of time. Although there are some dogs which are “experts” when it comes to swimming, there are some who just do not know how to really do it. Some of these dogs tend to swallow water as they swim and some even tend to gulp it down in large amounts as they paddle along. Aside from this, a dog which is tired from playing and swimming for long hours in the water will tend to swim low which is a contributing factor to gulping water.
- Catching toys on or underneath the water. Even if your dog is not swimming on a body of water, they can still ingest a large amount of water if they are playing catch in one. When a dog opens its mouth wide open to get a rounded toy in the water, chances are they will also be drinking some of that water as well. Toys which cause the dog to open their mouth open wide such as tennis balls, may contribute to the amount of water that they may ingest while playing in the water.
- Allowing your dogs to “bite” water coming from hoses or water sprinkler for an extended period. Although it is good for your dog to love water to stay hydrated, even those which are coming from your garden hose, it is important not to over-indulge them in this activity. The force of the water coming out from the hose can cause your dog to swallow more than they intend to. It is best to control or supervise your dog whenever they are playing with the hose in order to limit water flow and time spent in “biting” the water.
- Drinking a lot of water after a heavy or strenuous exercise. A dog can really be thirsty after doing some heavy physical activity and this can cause them to lap up water more than their bodies can handle at a time. Aside from the fact that they are ingesting water at a faster rate than normal, their kidneys may also not yet be that ready to eliminate ingested water. When the body is under physical stress, hormones are released which tend to shut down the kidneys temporarily.
Hence, drinking lots of water after a strenuous activity is not really recommended since fluid elimination is not yet functioning 100%.
What are the symptoms to look out for?
If you had taken out your dog to play with water either in a lake, a pool, or even with a hose or water sprinkler in your garden, it is important to take note of these symptoms in case your dog may have contracted water intoxication. Remember that this condition progresses rapidly and your dog can die within hours even if they had only been innocently playing with or in water.
If your dog suddenly looks ill, check to see if they show the following symptoms:
- Beginning stages
- Weakness or inability to stand
- Later stages
- Ataxia or uncoordinated muscle movements
- Dropping of lower jaw
- Marked twitching
- Involuntary urination
What types of dogs are prone to this condition?
All types of dogs can experience water intoxication but there are some which are more vulnerable to catching it. More often than not, a dog’s physical capacity as well as their current state of health will play a major factor in how much they would be affected.
Some of the dogs which are more prone to suffer from this are the following:
- Puppies and small or toy dog breeds. These types of dogs can easily suffer from water intoxication due to the fact they have smaller bodies and they also have a smaller capacity for water retention. What could be a regular drink for a large breed, can already be too much for a smaller dog. This is why dogs should always be supervised whenever they are drinking and water should not be left standing in a place that they can easily access.
- Hyperactive dogs. This is specifically observed in the experiments wherein those who tended to be hyperactive were also the ones who suffered from the symptoms earlier. Compared to dogs which have a more docile nature, these dogs suffered the various types of symptoms linked to water intoxication within minutes.
- Dogs that do not have a lot of body fat. Agility dogs and other dogs which have more muscle mass and less fat also tended to suffer from the condition pretty easily. Since they don’t have that excess fatty tissue to help absorb excess fluid, it is absorbed readily by the body and is distributed to the various organs much rapidly. Dogs who exercise heavily were also seen as being more prone to this condition.
- Dogs that love to swim. Dogs which tend to spend a lot of time swimming are also known to be more prone to suffer from this condition. This specifically pertains to those which rarely take a break or rest from playing and swimming. Leaving your dog to just “do as they please” is definitely not a good idea. As studies have shown, dogs have the mental age as that of a 2 year old human. Hence, why leave that decision to them?
What are the possible treatments?
Even if your dog had already stopped ingesting water, the process of absorption still continues so it is important to administer treatment early on in order to prevent future damage to the cells. There is not much option when it comes to treatment especially since orally administered medications have also proven to be quite futile in dealing with this condition. Since the recommended treatment is to be given intravenously, it is important to visit the nearest veterinary clinic immediately.
Here are some of the best treatments for dogs affected by water intoxication:
- Saline solution – In the experiments that had been conducted, the researchers found that giving a saline solution through IV had rapidly and effectively reversed the symptoms of water intoxication. Hypertonic salt solutions seemed to be the most effective device against this condition. Saline solutions which had been given orally were not able to bring effective relief from the symptoms.
- Diuretics – This is also to be administered intravenously and is highly recommended for dogs which have neural problems. This means that an underlying problem with the way in which your pet eliminates urine can also be a factor in water intoxication. The inability to get rid of excess water effectively can add to the rate at which your dog will experience the symptoms as well. Giving your dog some diuretics will help them get rid of the water even if they are suffering from neural problems.
- Restricting fluid intake – After your dog has gone out of the water, do not allow him or her to drink any more water as this can add to his already bloated state.
How can you prevent water intoxication?
As stated before, prevention is much better than treatment of this condition. Here is a list of things that you can do in order for your dog to avoid water intoxication and in order to enjoy your pet’s company much longer:
- Supervise your dog’s water-related activities. This means being there to control whatever your dog may be doing in the water. It is not a good idea to just leave your dog in the water since they can just get out when they want to. First and foremost, there are dogs which are not excellent swimmers and may tend to get tired easily. Secondly, you must be there to limit the time that they spend in the water. You should never allow your dog to spend more than 15 minutes straight in a body of water. Giving your dog a rest or a break after 15 minutes will give them time to eliminate any water that they may have drunk while swimming or playing.
- Bring them regularly to your vet to check their renal health. Since kidney health is important to proper fluid elimination, it is necessary to have your pet regularly checked to make sure that they are functioning properly.
- Buy toys that have a flat and not a rounded surface. If your dog loves to play catch in the water, then try to find a flat toy instead of rounded ones. This will help keep your dog’s mouth shut and will lessen the chances of him gulping large amounts of water as he tries to retrieve the toy.
What is the worst that can happen?
Once your dog shows any of the early symptoms of water intoxication, it is extremely important to bring them to the vet in order to get the proper treatment. Any delay can definitely lead to your pet’s untimely death.
You may be asking, how such a harmless substance can be that deadly to a dog well this is how it affects them. If your dog had ingested large amounts of water, approximately two-thirds of their body weight, their cells will begin to absorb the excess amount of water in their body. This will lead to loss of minerals especially sodium and chloride which are necessary for muscular activity.
Hence, you will notice that at the onset of the condition, your dog will have trouble coordinating muscle movements giving him a clumsy look. This will also affect the functions of the various organs in his body including his heart and lungs.
If your dog does not receive timely treatment, the swelling will reach his brain and his nervous system. When this happens, there will be a lot of pressure inside the cranium damaging the brain most especially the old brain or the “brain stem.” If the brain stem becomes damaged, respiratory functions will cease which will eventually lead to death.
All of these can happen within a few hours especially if you have a small dog. The first symptoms may not seem that serious especially if your dog is really not a whiner if they are feeling sick. They may just salivate and lie down while the condition continues to worsen and owners may tend to think that everything will turn out fine. This is not the right time to relax and let things take care of themselves.
What you need to do is to bring your pet to their vet and tell them that they had been spending some time on water when this happened. This will help your vet to diagnose the condition more properly instead of just blaming it on other types of injuries or medical condition. A lot of dogs have ended up dying since their vets were treating them for another type of disease instead of helping them regain water and sodium balance.
Water intoxication is not a very common incident when it comes to dogs and this is probably why not a lot of people really know about it. It is quite a rare event but when it does happen, it can lead to your pet’s death. Knowing what this condition really is and what causes it however, can help you avoid and treat this problem when it occurs.
Remember that dogs sometimes do not know what their physical limitations are and can continue on a specific activity even when it is already harming them. So, try to restrict and supervise your dog’s actions whenever they will be engaging in an activity involving water.